Ben Noble is a D.Phil. student at the University of Oxford, from where he also received an undergraduate degree in Philosophy, Politics, and Economics (BA Hons, First class, 2008) and an M.Phil. in Russian and East European Studies (Distinction, 2010). His research examines the legislative stage of policy making in authoritarian regimes, with a particular focus on contemporary Russia. His doctoral fieldwork in Russia was supported by a Leverhulme Trust studentship. Mr. Noble's M.Phil. dissertation — on the role of Council of Europe membership conditionality on criminal code liberalization in the post-Soviet states — was awarded the Michael Kaser prize by St. Antony’s College, University of Oxford, for the best doctoral or master’s dissertation in Russian politics or economics. From 2015, he will be a junior research fellow at New College, University of Oxford.